2021.09.17 00:50 dem0n0cracy The postprandial methylglyoxal formation during an oral glucose tolerance test is derived from exogenous glucose
The postprandial methylglyoxal formation during an oral glucose tolerance test is derived from exogenous glucose
X. Zhang1, J. Scheijen1, G. Duchateau2, M. Alssema2,3, C. Stehouwer1, K. Wouters1, C. Schalkwijk1;
1Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 2Unilever R&D, Wageningen, 3Health Council: current affiliation, The Hague, Netherlands.
Background and aims: Methylglyoxal (MGO), a reactive dicarbonyl compound and a major precursor in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts, is mainly formed as a byproduct of glucose during glycolysis. Excess formation and accumulation formation and accumulation of MGO are linked to diabetes and its vascular complications. We have previously shown that plasma MGO concentrations rapidly increased both during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or a mixed meal test, with a higher increase in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Spikes of MGO are believed to be a major contributor for vascular complications. However, the exact source of MGO is unknown. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate whether postprandial MGO formation directly originates from exogenous glucose.
Materials and methods: We performed a stable isotope labeled OGTT in 12 healthy males (age 25 yrs (range 21-30 yrs), BMI 22.5 kg/m2 (range 19.2-24.7 kg/m2). The treatment was a solution of 50 g glucose of which 2% is universally labeled D(+)13C glucose and 98% unlabelled 12C glucose. Blood samples were taken every 15 min for first two hours and every half an hour for the next four hours after the intake of glucose. Concentrations of MGO and glucose in plasma during OGTT (6 h) were measured at eleven time-points with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 13C MGO data were corrected for enrichment (*50) and for a difference in mass spectrometry response factor between 13C MGO and 12C MGO.
Results: During the first 180 min of the OGTT, plasma 12C glucose levels increased rapidly and reached a peak at 30 min, after which levels started to decline with the lowest level at 180 min post-load. After 180 min, plasma concentration of 12C glucose showed a slight increase. The plasma 13C glucose curve showed the same pattern as for 12C glucose, but the increase after 180 min was not observed, probably reflecting formation of 12C glucose in the second phase as a compensation for insulin-mediated glucose lowering below baseline levels. During the first 180 min of the OGTT, plasma 12C MGO and 13C MGO followed the same pattern with a rapid increase with a peak at 45 min, after which levels started to decline, with the lowest level at 180 min post-load. After 180 min post-load, 12C MGO, but not 13C MGO, showed a clear increase. We calculated that newly formed MGO in the early phase of the OGTT is completely derived from exogenous glucose, while the increase of MGO after 180 min is not.
Conclusion: These data show that the rapidly increase in levels of plasma MGO during an OGTT arise from exogenous glucose, while the increase of MGO after 180 min originates from an endogenous substrate. Where exactly MGO is produced in the postprandial phase is subject of further research.
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2021.09.17 00:50 Tailiye Not gonna lie, missing texture Foster looks kinda cool 😎
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2021.09.17 00:50 skyfly3r Does anybody want a gift card at a discount?
I promise I’m not a scammer. You can look at my profile history. 👀
I have a $71.96 Torrid gift card and I’m willing to sell it to somebody for $60.
I did some old returns at Torrid, but they were beyond their return policy (more than 60 days since purchase) so they gave me a gift card instead of putting the balance back on my card. :(((( I basically don’t shop there ever. So I don’t need this gift card.
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2021.09.17 00:50 mateosix Question about the Ley Line Mysteries weekly seasonal challenge. I have 19/20 trivial mysteries done but can’t find what one I’m missing. I checked all trivial mysteries I’ve completed and it doesn’t add up to 19 either. Is it just buggy right now?
2021.09.17 00:50 Pray4Buzz $SDC RUNNING AFTER-HOURS NOW: WOW THIS SHORT SQUEEZE WILL BE EPIC!!! PERFECTLY SET UP FOR SUCCESS! (SMILE DIRECT CLUB)
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2021.09.17 00:50 bh0uh [OC] Hidan
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2021.09.17 00:50 Sasquatch1985 How would you chuck this? Description in comments.
2021.09.17 00:50 monkeefan1960 Stereo Vinyl of The 1965 David Jones COLPIX Lp on Friday Music.
2021.09.17 00:50 irreleventsoul Giving up
I honestly don’t know how to do carry on everyday even though I tell everyone that I’m suffering I know there is nothing anyone can do I’ve asked for help from everywhere and still nothing everyone says if you feel like ending your life reach out there are always resources but I’ve asked for help countless times and got nothing I don’t know how to cope but then again years of trauma will do that to you I’m so hopeless and the feeling of loneliness I feel is insane I think it’s going to be soon and I feel so selfish
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2021.09.17 00:50 risris_ [WDYWT] These shorts make any outfit better!
2021.09.17 00:50 GreyRose Shiny pikipek after a chain of 183 and a couple broken chains. Going to evolve it into toucannon
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2021.09.17 00:50 Tjbenz 4k Music Video Filmed on S20
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2021.09.17 00:50 gunthug [USA-NJ] [H] BNIB Gigabyte Z590 Aorus Master Motherboard [W] Paypal
Hello! first time here at /hardwareswap but I have several confirmed sales over on /mechmarket if you'd like to check my history. Got lucky enough to win the Newegg shuffle, but am left with a motherboard that I can't use.
Have a BNIB Gigabyte Z590 Aorus Master Motherboard.
Asking $250 Shipped CONUS
Price is inclusive of PayPal fee.
As always, please comment before PM. Cheers!
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2021.09.17 00:50 Sammona08 Is a career related to Travel better for me or business!? I’ve been really worried to know if I should choose to start a business with my mother or a work on a career related to cruise! Plus what does having these many retrograde mean? I’ve been told it could mean not good things!
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2021.09.17 00:50 Educational-Error-56 Variety yard mushrooms (Florida). Can anyone ID any of them so I know to keep my 3 year old away.
2021.09.17 00:50 Idk_JustTakeAKiss My school is a wreck- how people vandalize the boys bathroom is insane.
So, first everyone was stealing the soap machines.
Then. Someone sprayed cool-aid and silly string all over the walls.
And today- someone stole a whole urinal.
I just wanna know how they’re doing this- and I feel bad for the sweet old janitor
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2021.09.17 00:50 Vostakgrad Similarities and differences of Cuban, Colombian and Peruvian Spanish?
The Wikipedia map for primary Spanish dialects give a yellowish and orangish color color for these three countries, and i have been searching online for any answers on how these countries dialects could be similar, but i couldn't find any.
I was wondering if any Spanish speakers from these countries know anything on this topic.
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2021.09.17 00:50 FaceplantingOpossum Zotac 3060 twin edge high temperatures
I got my zotac 3060 twin edge today. The temperature I got were alarming however: up to 82 degrees celsius in Control with 100% gpu utilization ofc, and around 53 degrees celsius in idle. My rx 570 never had any temperature issues, so I don‘t think my case has bad thermal characteristics. The fans spin up to over 2300 rpm at times, which makes it quite loud. I‘m now wondering if this is something anyone else experiences this. I have two fans at the front and one in the back, plus my cpu fan is pushing air towards the rear fan, so airflow should really not be the issue.
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2021.09.17 00:50 idontwanttobeonthis 🐰🐰
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2021.09.17 00:50 harv64 music video questinare.
Hi im a first year at college and I have a questionare that needs at least 50 responses by next wednesday the link is https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdJw3W6UN9eTqCVd7ccgOa-fIYxIZzRvB_Vc0ap429j_t9Qcw/viewform?vc=0&c=0&w=1&flr=0 pleas everyone whosees this fill it out itll help me so much
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2021.09.17 00:50 PurpleLoving9109 this should've been the ending of suf change my mibd
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2021.09.17 00:50 lucky_red_23 Class act former pack player Nyheim Hines gift to Debbie Yow!
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2021.09.17 00:50 YoungsterJoey9 Ottawa South United forced to withdraw from 2021 PLSQ
En raison des restrictions gouvernementales de part et d’autre de la frontière, et des difficultés qu’elles entraînent, Ottawa South United a été contraint de se retirer du championnat masculin, qui se terminera donc à neuf équipes.
Due to government restrictions on both sides of the border, and the difficulties they cause, Ottawa South United has been forced to withdraw from the men's championship, which will therefore end at nine teams.
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2021.09.17 00:50 Neinball98411 No particular reason I make you guys LOSE THE GAME... It's just that 👇
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2021.09.17 00:50 Kungfupanda_23 Azelf raid ASAP adding 10 // 3621 0377 0336